CNMAT provides facilities, expertise, and educational opportunities
to individuals interested in musical performance, practice and
research. Our goal is to provide a common ground where music,
cognitive science, computer science, electrical engineering, and
other disciplines meet to investigate, invent and implement tools
for the creation of live music. Our research results are often
"field tested" in concerts and demonstrations at a very
early stage, allowing researchers to refine their work in the
context of real performance situations.
CNMATs student labs have been upgraded with five new G3 PowerMac-based
workstations, loaded with Max/MSP and other software for coursework
and individual projects. Our research labs were recently outfitted
with two new Dell Optiplex GX1P/T+ workstations to support our
A diverse group of composers and performers presented in our
main room this year. CNMAT also collaborated with local presenting
organizations on several large productions of important works.
The Manoury Celebration was a three-day series of events featuring
the music of Philippe Manoury. The series was a collaboration
between the Berkeley Symphony Orchestra, CNMAT, the Mills College
Center for Contemporary Music, and the music department at UC
San Diego. The events included a panel presentation by Miller
Puckette, David Wessel, and Philippe Manoury, followed by a concert
of Manourys Ultima and Gestes performed by members
of SIRIUS; a concert of Pluton for piano and electronics
featuring Jerry Kuderna, piano and Miller Puckette, Musical Assistant,
and Jupiter for flute and electronics featuring Elizabeth
McNutt, flute and Keeril Makan, Musical Assistant; and a concert
presentation of Manourys opera 60th Parallel, featuring
the Berkeley Symphony, conducted by Kent Nagano, with Musical
Assistants Leslie Stuck and Miller Puckette, and technical direction
by David Wessel.
Lautre (The Other), by UC Berkeley faculty composer
Edmund Campion and poet John Campion, is a new collaborative work
of music and poetry. The work was commissioned by Radio France
and produced at CNMAT and IRCAM. It was featured in the Présences
1999 Festival in Paris.
Edmund Campion was commissioned to create the musical score
for Play Back, a new dance piece by choreographer Francois
Raffinot. The live performance realization of this piece made
extensive use of resonance models developed at CNMAT.
Catch and Throw is an interactive performance work that
has been under continual development by David Wessel since its
inception in the mid-eighties (Wessel,
Lavoie et al. 1987). Recent performances have involved improvising
acoustic pianists Vijay Iyer and Georg Graewe. In this work, the
pianists phrases are captured, analyzed, transformed, and reinjected
into the performance by Wessel using a responsive user interface.
Performances of this work were presented at the Common Sense Composers
Collective concert at the Yerba Buena Center in San Francisco
with Vijay Iyer, at CNMAT with Iyer and reed player J.D. Parran,
and most recently with pianist/composer Georg Graewe .
The Stanford University Center for Computer Research in Music
and Acoustics (CCRMA), the University of Washington Center for
Advanced Research Technology in the Arts and Humanities (CARTAH),
and the CNMAT Users Group presented a series of concerts and colloquia
of electroacoustic music.
Other composer/performers presented by CNMAT included Chris
Brown and the Computer Network Music Ensemble; Philip Gelb, Barre
Phillips, Pauline Oliveros, and Dana Reason; Ensemble Intercontemporain,
David Robertson, music director; Jean-Claude Risset; David Berhman,
Laetitia Sonami, John Ingle, and Alex Potts; and Hollands Ensemble
CNMAT continues to offer a popular series of courses, workshops,
colloquia, and demonstrations. Our audience includes UC Berkeley
students and faculty, visiting scholars, members of the local,
national, and international academic communities, representatives
from industry, and the general public. Courses for campus students
include Music 108: Music Perception and Cognition, Music 158:
Musical Applications of Computers and Related Technologies, Music
201: Workshop in Computer Music, Music 209: Advanced Topics in
Computer Music, and independent study courses.
An intensive week of evening classes featuring instruction
in Max/MSP programming by its developer David Zicarelli and instructors
David Wessel, Richard Dudas, Leslie Stuck, Adrian Freed, and Matthew
Wright. The course focuses on developing MSP-based electroacoustic
instrumentation in which Max provides flexible control and interactivity.
Managing complexity in larger projects is covered, with examples
of abstraction techniques that keep things from getting out of
control as they grow. The special challenges and techniques of
building Max/MSP programs for reliable concert performance is
Another intensive week of evening classes, this time featuring
instruction in SuperCollider 2, a sophisticated software environment
for real-time audio synthesis on the PowerPC platform. The course,
presented by SuperCollider 2 developer James McCartney and instructors
Alberto de Campo, Curtis Roads, and Matthew Wright, covers basic
language and environment handling, standard synthesis and processing
methods, advanced synthesis, composition, and interaction possibilities.
The following CNMAT papers were presented at the 105th Audio
Engineering Society Convention:
Band-Limited Simulation of Analog Synthesizer Modules by Additive Synthesis, Amar Chaudhary. (Chaudhary 1998)
Real-Time Inverse Transform Additive Synthesis for Additive and Pitch Synchronous Noise and Sound Spatialization, Adrian Freed. (Freed 1998)
Statistical Analysis of Sound Signals Using a Local Harmonic Model, Rafael Irizarry. (Irizarry 1998)
Volumetric Modeling of Acoustic Fields in CNMATs Sound Spatialization Theater, Sami Khoury, Adrian Freed, and David Wessel. (Khoury, Freed et al. 1998)
Other presentations include a lecture by noted German composer
Gerhard Stäbler presented by the CNMAT Users Group, a demonstration
by representatives from Be, Inc., including Timothy Self, Brian
Mikol, and Doug Wright, and a talk by Patrick Ozzard-Low, composer
and Director of Alternative Tuning Projects, UK.
The CNMAT research program had an exceptionally productive
year, with many new initiatives and a wealth of new developments
in existing projects.
As part of our shift towards the Max/MSP environment, we have
created programming practices and a set of new signal and discrete
event processing objects to support these practices. Included
are techniques for parameterizing the number of polyphonic voices,
dynamic patch building, atomic parameter updates, banks and cascades
of signal processing modules, parameter interpolation, manipulation
of large sets of data, and an assortment of software engineering
practices for programming reliable large scale projects.
We have invented a representation for Sound Description Interchange
Format (SDIF) data within Max/MSP, circumventing Maxs limited
language of data structures with a novel technique. Applications
include real-time spectral analysis, network streaming of SDIF
data to Max/MSP, resonance and additive synthesis with interactive
timbral transformation, and display of SDIF data. (Wright,
Khoury et al. 1999)
This project demonstrates a wide range of applications of new
external signal processing functions for Max/MSP. The heart of
the new resonators~ and biquads~ external functions is a highly
tuned signal processing kernel that exploits processor parallelism
and keeps the floating point arithmetic pipelines full. The key
to achieving this is the implementation of a bank of parallel
resonators and a cascade of biquads. (Jehan,
Freed et al. 1999)
The new MPEG-4 standard includes a general purpose sound synthesis
tool called Structured Audio. Composers, sound designers, and
analysis/synthesis researchers can benefit from the combined strengths
of MPEG-4 and SDIF by using the MPEG-4 Structured Audio decoder
as an SDIF synthesizer. This allows the use of sophisticated SDIF
tools to create musical works and other sound data, while leveraging
the anticipated broad availability of MPEG-4 playback devices.
(Wright and Scheirer 1999)
Implementing spectral line broadening efficiently on modern
processors is surprisingly challenging. We introduce in this project
an efficient method using transform-domain additive synthesis:
we modulate the phase of each sinusoidal description by a scaled,
zero-meaned, uniform random value. The good match of this computational
structure to the external/secondary-cache/primary-cache/register
memory hierarchy of modern computers indicates that the transform
methods can outperform direct oscillator implementations. (Freed 1999)
The most widely used digital sinusoidal oscillator structure
employs a first order recursion to accumulate and wrap a phasor,
followed by a sinusoidal functional evaluation - usually a table
lookup. Second order recursions are an attractive alternative
because the sinusoid is computed within the structure, avoiding
the need for a large table or specialized hardware function evaluator.
This is a major performance advantage on upcoming generations
of vector microprocessors such as the "T0", "TigerSharc",
"Altivec" and VLIW machines such as "Merced"
because of their large multiply/add rate for on-chip data. (Hodes and Freed 1999)
Live sound sources in our theatre are spatialized in real time
using software that integrates an acoustic model of the actual
room the audience is in. We exploit an unusual feature of the
theatre: its flexible suspension system. This project features
acoustic and volumetric models that allow real time performance;
the architecture that coordinates real time data flow between
the user interface, acoustic modeling, visualization and sound
spatialization software; and results of experience with diverse
performances in the theatre. (Kaup, Freed
et al. 1999)
We introduce "Open Sound World" (OSW), a scalable,
extensible object-oriented language that allows sound designers
and musicians to process sound in response to expressive real-time
OSW allows development of audio applications using patching, C++, high-level specifications and scripting. In OSW, components called "transforms" are dynamically configured into larger units called "patches." New components can be expressed using familiar mathematical definitions without deep knowledge of C++. High-level specifications of transforms are created using the "Externalizer," and are compiled and loaded into a running OSW environment. The data used by transforms can have any valid C++ type. OSW uses a reactive real-time scheduler that safely and efficiently handles multiple processors, time sources and synchronous dataflows. (Chaudhary, Freed et al. 1999)
Computer modeling of acoustic fields has been widely explored.
Despite the exciting potential of such models to improve existing
concert spaces and guide the design of better new venues, existing
computer modeling tools are not good enough to be a standard part
of the professional acoustic consultants toolbox. This project
addresses fundamental research questions limiting widespread use
of computer-based acoustic models and facilitates the integration
of acoustic models into leading CAD/CAM software. Results of the
research effort include a survey, implementation and evaluation
of promising acoustic simulation methods; development of efficient
representation of loudspeaker sources for acoustic modeling; and
development of new visualization techniques and user interfaces
necessary for successful use of acoustic models.
This project explores how computer modeling tools may be used
to design and improve conventional acoustic organs. The organ
timbre simulation work uses computer learning methods to create
models from recordings of real organ pipes. The spatial diffusion
research uses our newly created tool for real-time acoustic volume
visualization: Open Sound View. (Khoury,
Freed et al. 1998). This project is funded by the UC Berkeley
Music Departments Edmund ONeill Fund.
This project examines and develops multidimensional real-time
control of computer generated musical sound using gestural input
devices such as tablets and touch sensitive controllers. The research
is carried out in two locations: the work at CNMAT is led by David
Wessel, and the work at IRCAM is led by Xavier Rodet. The CNMAT
work has concentrated on the use of the tablet interface for the
control of high quality additive synthesis of melodic lines (Wessel, Wright et al. 1998), rhythmic
material (Wright and Wessel 1998),
and the selection and processing of sampled sound. The IRCAM work
has concentrated on the use of the tablet interface for the control
of high quality physical models of brass, reed, and bowed string
instruments (Serafin, Dudas et al. 1999).
Support for this project comes from the UC Berkeley France-Berkeley
This research project seeks to identify and overcome roadblocks
to an entirely digital infrastructure for live music performance.
A multidisciplinary effort, the work will result in research prototypes
of a bi-directional, multi-channel audio network link circuit
providing power and sound between musical instruments and digital
sound processors, synthesizers and arrays of loudspeakers; a programmable
directivity source model loudspeaker; a micromachined multi-sensor
with integrated calibration and A/D conversion for guitars and
other string instruments; a large database of polyphonic recordings
of guitars in all the major playing styles; a robust, real-time
low-latency pitch estimation algorithm; new graphical and gestural
interactive tools for live performance; new polyphonic sound processing
effects; pitch synchronous effects; real-time sound analysis/synthesis;
and 3-D acoustic visualization software for the sound design of
rooms, musical instruments and speaker arrays. (Jehan,
Freed et al. 1999), (Chaudhary and
Under the guidance of Richard Felciano, Founder and David Wessel,
Director, the CNMAT staff includes Adrian Freed, Research Director,
Matthew Wright, Musical Applications Programmer, Edmund Campion,
Composer-in-Residence, and Richard Andrews, Administrator.
Our roster of researchers includes Rimas Avizienis, Amar Chaudhary, Cyril Drame, Richard Dudas, Tristan Jehan, Arnold Kaup, Sami Khoury, Norbert Lindlbauer, Andreas Luecke, Will Pritchard, Ron Smith, and Brian Vogel. Gillian Edgelow is CNMATs Administrative Assistant. The CNMAT list of graduate student composers includes Bruce Bennett, Keeril Makan, Eric Marty, and Tom Swafford. Other collaborators are John Campion, Hugh Livingston, Silvia Matheus, Eleanor Ronaele, and Laetitia Sonami.
CNMAT gratefully acknowledges the support of our corporate
sponsors and Industrial Affiliates Program members, including
Gibson Musical Instruments and Opcode Systems, Silicon Graphics,
E-Mu Systems, Meyer Sound Laboratories, Wacom Technology Corporation,
Digidesign, Earthworks, Kurzweil, Orban, and Tom Austin/Sherman
Chaudhary, A. (1998). Band-Limited Simulation of Analog Synthesizer Modules by Additive Synthesis. AES 104th Convention, San Francisco, CA, AES.
Chaudhary, A. and A. Freed (1999). A Framework for Editing Timbral Resources and Sound Spatialization. Audio Engineering Society 107th Convention, Audio Engineering Society.
Chaudhary, A., A. Freed, et al. (1999). An Open Architecture for Real-Time Audio Processing Software. Audio Engineering Society 107th Convention, Audio Engineering Society.
Freed, A. (1998). Real-Time Inverse Transform Additive Synthesis for Additive and Pitch Synchronous Noise and Sound Spatialization. AES 104th Convention, San Francisco, CA, AES.
Freed, A. (1999). Spectral Line Broadening with Transform Domain Additive Synthesis. International Computer Music Conference, Beijing, China.
Hodes, T. and A. Freed (1999). Second-order recursive oscillators for musical additive synthesis. ICMC, Beijing, China.
Irizarry, R. (1998). A Direct Adaptive Window Size Estimation Procedure for Parametric Sinusoidal Modeling. International Computer Music Conference, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, ICMA.
Jehan, T., A. Freed, et al. (1999). Musical Applications of New Filter Extensions to Max/MSP. ICMC, Beijing, China, ICMA.
Kaup, A., A. Freed, et al. (1999). Volumetric Modeling of Acoustic Fields for Musical Sound Design in a New Sound Spatialization Theatre. International Computer Music Conference, Beijing, China, ICMA.
Khoury, S., A. Freed, et al. (1998). Volumetric Modeling of Acoustic Fields in CNMAT's Sound Spatialization Theatre. AES 104th Convention, San Francisco, CA, AES.
Khoury, S., A. Freed, et al. (1998). Volumetric Visualization of Acoustic Fields in CNMAT's Sound Spatialization Theatre. IEEE Visualization 98, Research Triangle Park, NC, IEEE.
Serafin, S., R. Dudas, et al. (1999). Gestural Control of a Real-Time Physical Model of a Bowed String Instrument. International Computer Music Conference, Beijing, China, ICMC.
Wessel, D., M. Wright, et al. (1998). Preparation for Improvised Performance in Collaboration with a Khyal Singer. International Computer Music Conference, Ann Arbor, Michigan, International Computer Music Association.
Wessel, D. L., P. Lavoie, et al. (1987). MIDI-Lisp: A Lisp-based programming environment for MIDI on the Macintosh. AES 5th International Conference: Music and Digital Technology, Los Angeles, Audio Engineering Society, New York.
Wright, M., S. Khoury, et al. (1999). Supporting the Sound Description Interchange Format in the Max/MSP Environment. International Computer Music Conference, Beijing, China, ICMA.
Wright, M. and E. Scheirer (1999). Cross-Coding SDIF into MPEG-4 Structured Audio. International Computer Music Conference, Beijing, China, ICMA.
Wright, M. and D. Wessel (1998). An Improvisation Environment for Generating Rhythmic Structures Based on North Indian "Tal" Patterns. International Computer Music Conference, Ann Arbor, Michigan, International Computer Music Association.